Friday, October 18, 2019

Chemistry of Alkenes Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chemistry of Alkenes - Lab Report Example Although there is the presence of the =C-H stretch, that shows presence of pentene as well. However, the wavenumbers corresponding to C-F, C-O, C-N and even aromatic =C-H stretch indicates that there is contamination. The Belstein test is a test for alkyl halides. The green flame is indicative of the presence of chlorine in the liquid, thus implying unreacted 3-chloro-3-methylpentane. The bromine test and potassium permanganate test are qualitative tests for alkenes. The color of the solution changed from brown to colorless, indicating the presence of an alkene in the product (bbc.co.uk, n.d.). The brown precipitate appearing in the solution after the permanganate test also indicates the presence of an alkene functional group (chemguide.co.uk, 2010). 4. Three unique alkene products are possible for the dehydrogenation reaction of 3-chloro-3-methylpentane. Two of the alkenes are related as E and Z isomers. Draw a Newman projection of the reactive conformation that produces the E isomer and a Newman projection that produces the Z isomer assuming an E2 mechanism for

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Railway shipment of hazardous cargo, Safety, and homeland security Essay

Railway shipment of hazardous cargo, Safety, and homeland security - Essay Example The law provided various guidelines on packaging and operational rules safeguarding the shipment of such commodities using the railway line (Downey, 2014). After the 1975 Act, various laws and bills have been adopted to control the conveyance accorded to hazardous products within the country. Through these improvements, there has been reduced number of accidents and spillage of dangerous materials and gases into the atmosphere. These transportations of the materials through railway line are gradually improving and in the future, there will be limited or no cases of accidents or destruction of property through this form of transport. The United States Railway system is used for moving various types of hazardous cargo across the country. The system is responsible for transporting toxic gas cargos across the state. Twenty percent of all of the gases transported in the country are done through the railway system. According to Spraggins (2015), this percentage is equivalent to 1.7 million carloads of toxic gases moved by rail. The perfect example of gas transported by rail is chlorine, which is essential for both the public health and major private laboratories. In addition, chlorine is necessary for purifying water. Due to its importance and its hazardous nature, twenty-two percent of chlorine is transported through railways (Spraggins 2015). It translates to 35000 carloads of chlorine annually. In addition, the railway system is utilised for freight of crude oil across the country. Approximately millions of gallons of highly flammable oil are hauled by rail to various destinations in the country. Reports and statistics by the American Association of roads in 2009 indicated that there were 9500 railcars that moved across the country in 2008 carrying crude oil (Mark, Seely, & Barrett, 2006). The high number crude of oil moved was because of its use

Interactions And Dynamics Within the Communication On a TV Program Term Paper

Interactions And Dynamics Within the Communication On a TV Program - Term Paper Example The main type of non-verbal and verbal dynamics that come into play in the television series will be explained. Goals One of the most important goals of this paper is to analyze the television series Survivor and explain the interactions and dynamics within the series. The paper seeks to observe small groups of people who work together and are involved in communication so as to achieve the objectives of what they are working on. In the episode of Survivor series watched, it was clear that the characters needed to communicate so as to achieve the goals that had been set out for them. Survivor is a television program produced in many countries across the world. The show depicts contestants who are isolated in the jungle or wilderness as they compete for prizes such as cash. In the show, the contestants are constantly observed so as to determine the contestants who are able to overcome the challenges and follow the instructions that they are give. The contestants are eliminated one by o ne when they fail on performing crucial tasks such as effective communication. One of the major qualities that are tested in the contestants of the show is the ability to communicate. The contestants are usually put together in groups or teams and required to deal with their tasks or challenges as a team. They are supposed to work together to achieve common goals. Communication is thus very important among the members of these teams if they are to win the challenge (Burnett& Martin, 2000). This paper will observe the interactions and dynamics within the communications taking place in the television series. The paper is aimed at clearly describing the verbal and non-verbal dynamics that come into play in the television series. The paper also aims at looking at the behaviors of... This paper approves that the Survivor TV program employs huge communication dynamics in ensuring that the entire series irrespective of the country set, turns out to be what it should be. This means that a lot of communication dynamics are employed in the production and ultimate creation of the program. The communication has to be as interactive as it ought to be so that viewers can get an active chance to view and enjoy the series and its episodes. Communication plays a great role in the program. All the participants are expected to take time to understand instructions at both individual and team level. Once they have, they have an active chance of mapping those instructions into a winning strategy. This strategy is as a result of both the verbal and non verbal communication that is displayed by participants. At each and every stage, human conflicts arise as a result of the very many issues that make up human beings. This article makes a conclusion that the teams that have come up with a communication strategy that encompasses all that they stand for are successful in their tasks. Communication takes a distinct path from listening to instructions, to understanding what they mean. This then moves to asking questions and query clarification at each and every point in the event that something was not clear. It is important to understand that communication dynamics are best seen in the results after communication has occurred. This means that participants irrespective of what they felt when being addressed understood what was expected of them and what they were required to do.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Railway shipment of hazardous cargo, Safety, and homeland security Essay

Railway shipment of hazardous cargo, Safety, and homeland security - Essay Example The law provided various guidelines on packaging and operational rules safeguarding the shipment of such commodities using the railway line (Downey, 2014). After the 1975 Act, various laws and bills have been adopted to control the conveyance accorded to hazardous products within the country. Through these improvements, there has been reduced number of accidents and spillage of dangerous materials and gases into the atmosphere. These transportations of the materials through railway line are gradually improving and in the future, there will be limited or no cases of accidents or destruction of property through this form of transport. The United States Railway system is used for moving various types of hazardous cargo across the country. The system is responsible for transporting toxic gas cargos across the state. Twenty percent of all of the gases transported in the country are done through the railway system. According to Spraggins (2015), this percentage is equivalent to 1.7 million carloads of toxic gases moved by rail. The perfect example of gas transported by rail is chlorine, which is essential for both the public health and major private laboratories. In addition, chlorine is necessary for purifying water. Due to its importance and its hazardous nature, twenty-two percent of chlorine is transported through railways (Spraggins 2015). It translates to 35000 carloads of chlorine annually. In addition, the railway system is utilised for freight of crude oil across the country. Approximately millions of gallons of highly flammable oil are hauled by rail to various destinations in the country. Reports and statistics by the American Association of roads in 2009 indicated that there were 9500 railcars that moved across the country in 2008 carrying crude oil (Mark, Seely, & Barrett, 2006). The high number crude of oil moved was because of its use

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Academic Performance and Personal Growth and Development Essay

Academic Performance and Personal Growth and Development - Essay Example The purpose and goal of any educational institution are to introduce and instal a set of knowledge and skills to the students and together with the parents and/or guardians act as the custodians of personal development through discovering and nurturing talents. A given education institutions will have students from all economic, social and cultural divides; students talented differently, with different perspectives on the education and learning systems and with different post-school aspirations, and it’s the work of the institution and relevant stakeholders (Joyce, 2011) to match these traits to help them achieve maximum in school life. These students may explicitly and/or implicitly depict or showcase their attributes in that some are physically active in both the academic and extra curriculum activities whereas others may be passive in any of them or both (Rayner & Cools, 2011). This will in one way or the other influence their academic performance and personal growth and de velopment both at the college and after college which is similar but different to some extent and this paper seeks to contrast the academic performance, leadership/ administrative roles and post-school lives of active and passive students. Apart from ensuring students cognitively understand the subject matter; institutions are also interested to ensure that graduates can make good leaders, an attributed nurtured within the institution. Active students tend are involved in leadership roles to a greater extent than the passive students but comparatively lack administrative skills; a factor that can be attributed to rationality and perceptions between these students (Scherer, 2010).

Monday, October 14, 2019

Characters are similar throughout books Essay Example for Free

Characters are similar throughout books Essay Henrik Ibsens characters are similar throughout his books. There are pairs of characters with similarities in A Dolls House and Ghosts. One such pair is Nora and Mrs. Alving.  Both characters were unhappily married, but had other significant men in their lives. Manders and Dr. Rank both appeared as good friends to the women. This is a similarity, but with the difference that Nora rejected one and Mrs. Alving was rejected by the other. These men helped the women through their problems however and they would do anything for them. To have loved you as much as any one else does? Was that horrid? (A Dolls House, Act II, p. 40) Dr. Rank tells Nora. He is expressing that he has loved her the whole time that she thought they were just best friends.  Mrs. Alving ran away from her husband in their first year of marriage and went to Manders. She had been in love with him, but he respected the sanctity of marriage so had to turn her away. That I was able to turn you from your outrageous intention, and that it was vouchsafed to me to succeed in leading you back into the path of duty and back to your lawful husband. (Ghosts, Act I, p. 89)  Nora and Mrs. Alving both have children that they love very much. Nora is talking to Mrs. Linde, an old friend, when she brings up the topic of her children, So you are quite alone. How dreadfully sad that must be. I have three lovely children. (A Dolls House, Act I, p. 8) Nora often brings up the topic of her children when talking, because she loves them so much and wants to tell the whole world about them. Mrs. Alving loved her son Oswald so much that she sent him away, even though it would be very painful for her, so that he wouldnt become like his father. It was then that Oswald was sent away. He was about seven then, and was beginning to notice things and ask questions as children will It seemed to me that the child would be poisoned if he breathed the air of this polluted house. That was why I sent him away. (Ghosts, Act I, p. 93) She rationalizes her decision. Mrs. Alving and Nora prove that they love their children through their actions in the plays, which are often similar.  As much as Ibsen deliberately made his characters similar, he also made what happens to them different. At the end of A Dolls House, Nora ends being the victor. She leaves her husband because it is what she wants and she knows how to get it. Oh, Torvald, I dont believe any longer in wonderful things happening That our life together would be a real wedlock. Good-bye. (A Dolls House, Act III, p. 68) With this, she leaves her house and the man she was in a loveless marriage with. Mrs. Alving does not have the same fortune as Nora. At the end of Ghosts, her beloved son is left in a vegetative state and she is left to despair over it.  Oswald! What is the matter with you! Oswald! Oswald! Look at me! Dont you know me! I cant bear it! Never! (Ghosts, Act III, p. 128) A main difference in Mrs. Alving and Noras attitudes is that Nora left her husband when she couldnt take it any more and Mrs. Alving waited for hers to die.  Listen, Torvald. I have heard that when a wife deserts her husbands house, as I am doing now, he is legally freed from all obligations towards her. (A Dolls House, Act III, p. 67) Nora tells him. This shows that she is a stronger character than Mrs. Alving, because she actually stood up to her husband and told him that his behavior was unacceptable. I had my little boy, and endured it for his sake I took the upper hand in the house absolutely both with him and all the others. I had a weapon to use against him (Ghosts, Act I, p. 92-93) Mrs. Alving shows that she took the easy way out. She could have stood up to Mr. Alving and taken her son and left, but instead she chose to go along with it, just standing in his shadow and quietly telling him that she was unhappy. The similarities that come out in the characters of Mrs. Alving and Nora are always mixed in with other situations that make them different. Ibsen wanted to prove to his audience that it wasnt always healthy to be in a marriage and by doing this he went against the norms of society. Neither play has a so-called happy ending, because not all the characters have had their issues resolved by the end. The two plays show the different angles that he wanted the audience to be aware of, but their endings repeat a point for clarity.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Trends And Benefits Of Vegetarian Cuisine Sociology Essay

Trends And Benefits Of Vegetarian Cuisine Sociology Essay Vegetarian lifestyle has basically moved to the status of healthy living in western culture .Vegetarian people prefer to eat natural food with friendly menus considering a lot of benefits which could be as follows A diet of fruits and vegetables can prevent diseases and reduce lung cancer and avoid blockage as well of the heart diseases ,diabetes is another problem in the cities which can be again prevented by intake of fruits which create lot of fibres ,vegetarian is good for your skin as it does not have an side effect, vegetarian food is again chemical free as it does have any animal cells and fat in it , our body can easily digest vegetarian food as it does not much time comparing to the animal food and with this we improve our digestion as well . Facts about vegetarian cuisine In 1961, the Journal of the American Medical Association stated that ninety to ninety-seven percent of heart disease, the cause of more than half the deaths in the United States, could be prevented by a vegetarian diet. http://www.vegetarian-restaurants.net/OtherIonfo/HealthBenefit.htm A vegetarian diet is very healthy diet but it is important to make sure that it is well balanced as we need all kind of nutrients from all forms. A healthy vegetarian diet should include grains and cereals, fruits and vegetables, dairy and soya products legumes nuts and seeds It has been said that animal meat contains more protein than vegetarian food but some people still prefer to have to vegetarian food as it avoids lots of animal fat which can cause heart diseases and we can also avoid lots of calories. After all this benefit we still might have a doubt as to why we should be vegetarian than here are some points which are relevant. Youll live a lot longer. Vegetarians live about seven years longer, and vegans (who eat no animal products) about 15 years longer than meat eaters, according to a study from Loma Linda University. These findings are backed up by the China Health Project (the largest population study on diet and health to date), We can save our heart by reducing the intake of fat in our body which can reduce the risk of heart attack and related diseases Researchers like NACNE Report (National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education)and also The World Health Organisation (1990) say that we can reduce or even avoid cancer and eating more vegetable would be protecting our body from all these diseases We can avoid intake of chemical that has been used on animals for some reason like to increase the growth of animals very fast or reproduction like the uk meat scandal 2007 which can also affect us in some ways Ecologists and environmentalists are concerned about protecting the living creatures on earth There might be many description of being vegetarian but In my project the main thing to highlight about being vegetarian is that people need to think what are they eating why are eating and how will it affect them,eating meat is not a bad practise its just people concept towards eating food , the kind of food they like the way they like, but its just being vegetarian will help them more when it comes to health , global warming, environment is concerned . We all know that people eat vegetarian or meat food due to n no of reasons here are few reason which we think would be possible Religion-there are certain rituals that we need to follow while having our daily food as it is very important. for e.g.- Hindu people cannot eat beef as it is their god and they worship cow which again makes an impact of consumption of food ,secondly Jainism- these are the kind of people that dont prefer to eat meat as they are purely vegetarian society and even prefer not to eat products that grows under earth for eg potatoes ,onion and many more things ,Islam -these people do not prefer to eat pork . Health issues -Eating lots of meat can lead to lots of fat which can again cause many diseases like heart blockage ,cancer ,diabetes and many more and all the doctors worldwide prefer not to eat meat in all these cases as they can lead to infection and poising as well which can lead to death. Eating meat does not mean it will affect the person but it can avoid the risk of diseases. Environment Raising lots of animals has lead to global warming which is again a threat to our environment .The emission of green house, chemical imbalance, water contamination has lead to problems. Trends and fashion In big societies people tend to have a vegetarian food as it has become a style statement and nowadays its been a trend of being vegetarian as people are creating awareness t to be vegetarian through magazines, yoga and other sources . Conscience some people have a feeling that if they turn to vegetarian they can avoid killing animals and they can make a lot of difference .Also some people conscious does not agree to eat meat products as they are not comfortable with it. Timeline (UNITED KINGDOMS) This paragraph will give us a brief idea of Vegetarianism as to when it started ? how it started and who were behind it . We will follow the history and find out various changed that was implicated in the vegetarian society 1452-leonardo da vinci ate no meat and he was entirely on vegetables. In 19 century Leonardo was great into his notebooks and he use to explore lots of things like reading books which made him vegetarian as he was against cruelty to animals http://www.ivu.org/history/davinci/hurwitz.html YEAR DEVELOPMENT 1847 Vegetarian Society was formed in the united kingdom 1848 Vegetarian Society launched its magazine, which is still in production today 1889 1908 Vegetarian Granose Foods, the UKs first major health and vegetarian food manufacturer, is established. In 1908 the international vegetarian union was formed ivu) formed. 1900-1914 Mahatma Gandhi and George Bernard Shaw join the London Vegetarian Society 1916 Wholly Vegetarian Dishes promoted for the first time by the Ministry of Food as part of food rationing programme in WW1 1920 Vegetarian Society holds its first summer school at Arnold House in Llanddulas that ran for five weeks 1941 Ministry of Food grants special concessions to vegetarians for extra rations of cheese and and nuts during WWII 1944 Vegan Society Formed 1961 First Cranks vegetarian food restaurant opened in Carnaby Steet in London 1967 Tiny organism used for the production of mycoprotein was identified 1969 Vegetarian Society became a limited company 1970 Vegetarian Society logo introduced 1981 Cauldron Food first UK manufacturer of chilled tofu established 1983 Cordon Vert Vegetarian Cookery School established 1986 Marlow food formed Quorn brand launched 1989 Goodlife Foods established 1991 Linda McCartney launches her vegetarian meal range 1991 First National Vegetarian Day organised 1999 Vegetarian food market exceeds  £400 million in value http://www.meat-free.org.uk/mf_timeline.aspx History The vegetarian society was formed on 30 Sep 1847 and it is more than 150 years old. A group of vegetarian activists joined together and formed this society with the means to make people realize the benefits of being vegetarian. The Vegetarian Messenger, on 15th October 1848. In that year, a new group was formed in London. By then, the society had grown to 478 members. a period of rapid growth for vegetarianism, with 34 vegetarian restaurants open in London out of a total of 52 in Britain as a whole. Bernard Shaw and Mahatma Gandhi formed the vegetarian society in London in 1888 to 1891. There was some concern that was raised among the vegetarian people stating that we need t o avoid killing animals and eating there flesh and this became a big debate indeed I 1944.but by 1909 and 1912 the vegetarian society did accept the support of eggs and milk products that comes naturally from an animals without harming them at all. So the people were fine with this kind of support and were still regarded as vegetarians. . When the first British vegan cookery book No Animal Food by Rupert H. Wheldon appeared in 1910 containing 100 recipes and two essays on why eating animal food was not a good idea, the Vegetarian Societys sympathetic reviewer echoed similar comments: this is undoubtedly a point demanding the attention of vegetariansThe recipes show that it is not at all impossible to obtain a variety of palatable dishes without recourse to either eggs or milk. http://www.ivu.org/news/3-98/vegsocuk.html Developments and future trends in the vegetarian society BY 1970 to 1980 there was an increasing interest among the vegetarian society and people started demonstrating the benefits of being through magazines, cookery books, teaching and skills .courses through professional chefs. Few societies have introduced the national vegetarian week in order to promote the vegetarian dishes and make people realise the benefits of being vegetarian. There have been many exhibitions such as national vegetarian congress held in paris on October 20 1899 and also Brighton vegan fare 2009 to create awareness among the people about the benefits of being vegetarian Restaurants are trying various ways to impress people by innovating lot many dishes in vegetarian menu. There is nothing wrong in eating meat but people just want to try something new and it can also be just a plane reason to be vegetarian. There is nothing wrong in eating meat by figures show that people are converting themselves to vegetarian more often, surely there could be any reason but it might be beneficial for them in some way. . The figures are as follows There are currently about four million vegetarians in the UK, representing some seven per cent of the population. Amongst younger people, that figure rises to 12 per cent. It is estimated that a remarkable 41 per cent of people in the UK are now including far less meat in their diet. In the UK alone, approximately five thousand people each week are choosing to give meat a miss and join the veggie revolution. If such trends were to continue, it is estimated that by the year 2030 everyone in the UK will be a vegetarian. http://www.vegsoc.org/news/2000/21cv/introduction.html As per this saying i wont agree as some people still like to eat meat all the time and it is impossible up to certain extent as people are trying new techniques and methods to improve the taste of the food by constantly changing the menu, getting customers feedback, organizing exhibitions, getting comments and feedback from people as what extra could have been done . . As per the assumptions show above we can expect more demand of vegetarian food which in turn would force people to open vegan or purely vegetarian restaurants in the future. And some of them are -Wild Ginger in Harrogate and Hitchcocks in Hull, Yorkshire; Black Bos in Edinburgh; West 13th in Glasgow More Indians and Asians entering United Kingdom premises is creating a demand in vegetarian food which again is making difference to vegetarian figures Recipes of Vega based products has developed same as meat based products. Restaurants are making lot of changes in there menus as business is demanding for vegetarian food. We are getting vegetarian foods in supermarkets which have omega 3 which is most of the time not there in vegetarian food so we can make out that people are getting more options which is again increasing the demand . The lifestyle is also making a lot of difference in the eating habits people eating more of junk food and they dont eat the food properly they are working as well as eating without any concentration which is affecting them .. Our body is less resistance to things these days so people prefer to have vegetarian dishes and it could have many reason, health issues, and allergies. Its basically people have got options Disadvantages and Advantages of being vegetarian Being vegetarian does not necessarily means that it is good it also has lots of problems involved and these are some of the examples More vegetarian food in demand need more labelling but the labelling in supermarkets does not specify what king of vegetarian product that is for e.g. lacto vegetarian à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. It would always state suitable for vegetarian but a vegan would not know it. Vegetarian by products come form fungi which is again harmful for someone as someone might be allergic to it and it does not state in the vegetarian dishes all the time. Some food products contain meat by products but we still show them vegetarian. For e.g. some products have gluten which is an animal product but we still show vegetarian product. (BREAKING TRADE RELATION). Some people are allergic to lot much food stuff which again makes them vegetarian which is also not a positive sign. Sodium and salt consumed in more quantity could be more harmful. When we cook food or cut vegetables we are destroying vitamins and by the time we eat the food it almost does not exists. Nutrients vary in vegetarian and meat based products for e.g. 100 grams of meat and 100grams of vegetables cooked or not cooked would not give the same proportion of nutrients. The proportion is not the same. The digestion varies as well digesting meat take more time than vegetarian. So it does make a difference. The following diagram show the vegan food pyramid and explain a benefits of vegetarian diet. Reference www.veganfoodpyramid.com/ By looking at the food pyramid we can make out what has to be consumed and in what proportion but it is very tricky question as it also depends on your age and kind of work the person is doing for e.g. If we burn more calories we need to have more of energy and if we dont work we dont need to have more calories intake. After looking at the pyramid we can make out that the lower part of the pyramid is the one which we should eat more which includes fruits and vegetables as it contains more of fibres and the vegetables have more of vitamins in them The second part of the pyramid shows that we need to have moderate amount of wheat and wheat products as they provide us starch and carbohydrates which is also good for our body . The third part of the pyramid shows us dairy and pulses which again gives us lots of vitamins ,proteins and minerals , as we all know eating neat also helps us in protein intake but we need to make sure that the food we eat has be digestible and it should also be helpful to our digestion system The fourth art of the pyramid shows us about the fats that u be used in very less amount , we know that we need some amount of fat in our body up to a certain extent but if more is consumed it will again lead to heart diseases . so it is very important to make sure that whatever we make it has to be in the right proportion and after all this we need to make sure that we consume atleast 8 to 10 glasses of water are body majorly has water . Being vegetarian does not mean eating fruits and vegetables we have different categories in vegetarian society. In vegetarian society we still have optional food items that are consumed b the people for e.g.- a vegetarian person can avoid eating egg as it is also a source of animal product which a person would not be comfortable with so for this reason we have divided vegetarian people in 6 different categories and they are LACTO- OVO LACTO VEGAN JAINISM RAW VEGAN/RAW FOOD DIET Lacto -ovomost of vegetarian people did not like eating meat as they could not see the suffering of animals so they avoided eating meat but they were fine eating egg and egg products but not meat ,fish and seafood .They were fine eating animals products until and unless if they were not killed like dairy products which come through animals Lacto These people are the other way around they can consume dairy products like milk, cheese, butter but not eggs. In this case the animal gelatine can also be avoided by getting special kind of products for e.g. -gluten free bread and products which are gluten free or gelatine free. Vegan These are completely different from the other two. they dont prefer any animal or its by product they are purely vegetarian ,no eggs and no dairy products , everything that they eat has to be animal free .they have very less option when it comes to food and these people need to make sure that they need to get all kinds and nutrients from limited sources of food . for e.g.-vegan people has no means of getting b12 in the food list but then some food companies made sure that the cereals or cornflakes that they eat should have b12 in it . Janism- These are the kind of people which are like vegan which dont prefer any animal or it by product and adding on to that they do not prefer to eat food products that is grown under the ground as they think that micro organism underground might have contaminated the food. And these include onion, potatoes; they are fine with the products which grow above the ground level. These are the kind of the vegetarian people that exists to day. We will talk about the nutritional value which is concerned with the vegetarian food. We all know meat and meat products has lots of vitamins and minerals and fat that is required for our day to day activities but all these nutrients can also be obtained by vegetarian products, here the brief idea as to what ingredients give the kind of nutrients. These are the form of energies that we get from the food products basically from vegetarian food. Proteins -it has been said that women needs about 45g of proteins per day and men needs about 55g of protein per day and it has been also said that excessive protein can lead to degenerative diseases which can create a lot of problems -http://www.eatwell.gov.uk/asksam/healthydiet/fiasandshellfishq/ Soya products, milk products, wheat, pulses, cereals, free range eggs these are the products which contain lots of protein in them and which should be consumed in certain quantity. Protein is basically found in meat and meat products and it is found lesser in non animals products provided if u are a vegetarian we need to make sure that we should get all kind of proteins from vegetarian products. The very most important thing that we need to make sure is the difference between the essential and non essential protein, the non essential proteins are the one that can be assembled by the essential protein but the essential protein cannot be assembled by itself. Lack of protein can affect our body by lack of energy, obsiety, hair loss and sleeping problems. From the vegetarian point of view, getting protein is not a big problem as we have many vegetarian foods which has good amount of protein in it, thought the vegetarian diet may not have all the essential proteins and i also depends on each person eating habits. For e.g. a vegan may not have all the proteins as they are limited to certain food which is again a big problem. Fats- Although people have a concept in their mind that fat is not good for health which is wrong up to a certain extent we need fat in our body but in a certain limit as it protects our some vital organs of our body from shock and pressure .the sources of fats are oil, nuts, dairy and dairy products .30% of calories should be from fat and protein cannot be converted into fats. There are two types of fat poly-saturated and mono-unsaturated fat and both the combination of these fats makes unsaturated fat and these are primarily found in vegetarian products. Olive and canola oil is very important oil when it comes to health. Triglycerides and trans fat are the kind of fat that are used fir taste but it is not good for our health and is creating heart diseases .it has been said that the food cannot be cooked without fat but it should be used in minimum quantity. In the UK, people consume on average about 10g per day of linoleic acid, found in around nine level teaspoons of polyunsaturated mar garine or three teaspoons of sunflower oil. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8161616.stm From the vegetarian points of view, getting fat is very easy as we have fat is many vegetarian foods like oil, dairy and dairy products but any fat consumed should be in less quantity as it may have effects on our health and as we have discussed the future trends people are very much concerned about their health so they prefer eating less fat. And vegetable fats are mostly unsaturated .we also get oil in the supermarket which has omega 3 in it and which is very important for a vegan as vegan cannot have dairy products . Carbohydrates -these are the form of energy which is also required to a body and the simple source of carbohydrate is sugar. We need carbohydrate as it provides s energy gradually but it has been said that over consumption of carbohydrate can lead to obesity. Different sources of carbohydrate are rye bread, wheat bread, potatoes. Any food that name ends with ose has sugar in it like lactose (milk), fructose (fruits) is considered to be a carbohydrate and if excess is consumed it will be converted into fat easily 2 types of carbohydrate Good one fruits and vegetables and grains /Bad one potatoes, pastas, pastries, direct sugar . Excessive sugar can also lead to diabetics which can be a big problem so we need to make sure that we should consume limited amount of carbohydrate. From the vegetarian point of view, carbohydrate are found in many plants foods like cereals ,barley ,oats and also fruits . The World Health Organisation recommends that 50-70% of energy should come from complex carbohydrates. But it also depends on the eating pattern from person to person. MINERALS minerals help our body to grow, there are some minerals that are found in our body, it has been said that beef has lots of iron which is very good for our health but since we are talking about the vegetarian products we need to mention the vegetarian dishes through which we can get the minerals for e.g. Green leafy vegetables, orange juice, wheat and oats, tomatoes, banana, oranges There are different kinds of mineral those iron, zinc, iodine, calcium and all these minerals play a very important roles in our life for e.g. iron is good for our brains and growth, calcium is good for our teeths muscle and bones ,potassium is good for our skin ,zinc is good for fighting illness and germs . Calcium- green leafy vegetables nuts and seeds Iron- dried fruits, green leafy vegetables Zinc- cereals and green leafy vegetables Iodine -sea vegetables these are certain vital minerals that are required for the growth of a body and we can find all these minerals from vegetarian food items. As from the above explanation we know that vegetables are good source of minerals and we can get them in the right quantity . http://www.vegsoc.org/info/basic-nutrition.html http://kidshealth.org/kid/stay_healthy/food/minerals.html# Vitamins and minerals information sheet Vitamin A- good for healthy skin-carrots, spinach, watercress, margarine Vitamin B2-breaking down the carbohydrate -Brazil nuts, rice, oatmeal, flour, sunflower seeds Vitamin b3-for nervous system -peanut, mushroom, sesame seeds Vitamin b6-red blood cell formations and protein metabolism -hazelnuts, banana, peanuts Vitamin b12-red blood cell formations -herbal soft drinks, breakfast cereals Vitamin c -bones, teeth, gums -citrus foods, spinach, berries Vitamin d For absorption of minerals for healthy bones-dairy products and margarine. Vitamin e Acts as an antioxidant protecting vitamins A and C- vegetable oil, avocadoes Vitamin k -for blood clotting spinach, cabbage and cauliflower Minerals Iron- component of haemoglobin -green leafy vegetables Sodium and potassium maintain bodys water balance -salt, root vegetables and cereals Calcium-for bones and teeth-green leafy vegetables, soya milks Magnesium-strong bones and enzymes -found in plant food deficiency is very rare Sulphur -play a good role in enzyme system found very rare http://www.vegsoc.org/info/vitmineral.html Protein Protein intake is also one the most important factors. Being vegetarian does not mean that we lack protein as it is found in most of the plants and vegetarian dishes .protein once consumed are broken down to amino acids during digestion and are then absorbed by the human body. Certain amino acids are made by the human body itself but some proteins are required by a specific diet the eight essential amino acids required by humans are: leucine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and lysine. For children, histidine is also considered to be an essential amino acid.. http://www.vegsoc.org/info/protein.html Generally proteins are required for health and growth .they are very important as they help the structural support of our body. The sources of proteins are nuts, seeds, pulses soya milk and products, milk cheese and yoghurt. The conclusion of this whole project is to spread the awareness among the people for being vegetarian .Eating non vegetarian food as no side effects its just person concepts towards eating . Other than this people think that eating vegetarian food would really help them in positive manner and it would be fair to human as well as animals. and it has been said to save the planet we need to stop killing animals and start eating vegetarian food which can also impact our environment .when it comes to physical fitness , health related people have always preferred to be vegetarian as it has no side effects to our body and the habits of eating . In the past few years we have also seen people trying to force the production of meat based animals which is in turn affecting us , as government has taken some measures to improve it and people are still eating meat but again its just a person concept towards eating vegetarian and non vegetarian food .